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Burcucumber

Abstracts:

Effect of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus) establishment date and crop competition on burcucumber fecundity. 2001. W.R. Esbenshade, W. S. Curran, G. W. Roth, N. L. Hartwig, And M. D. Orzolek. Weed Sci. 49:

An experiment examining the effect of Sicyos angulatus emergence date and Z. mays competition on S. angulatus fecundity was conducted in 1997 and 1998 in central PA. S. angulatus seedlings were transplanted in the field on approximately 10 d intervals starting in late May through mid-August with or without competition from a Zea mays crop. S. angulatus plants grown without competition from Z. mays produced 716 g dry matter and 4500 seeds plant-1 in 1997 and 607 g dry matter and 1800 seeds plant-1 in 1998. Biomass was greatest for plants established in late May whereas seed production was greatest for plants established in mid June. Although seed numbers were reduced in comparison to the May and June establishment periods, plants established as late as August still produced seed. S. angulatus established in Z. mays produced 96% less dry matter and seed than the plants in a noncompetitive environment in both years of the study. Although the growth and seed production of S. angulatus grown in Z. mays was drastically reduced, plants established as mid-July still produced seed.

Effect of tillage, row spacing, and herbicide on the emergence and control of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus) in soybean (Glycine max). 2001. W.R. Esbenshade, W. S. Curran, G. W. Roth, N. L. Hartwig, And M. D. Orzolek. Weed Technol. 15:229–235.

Experiments examining the effect of tillage and soybean row spacing on burcucumber emergence and growth and the effect of postemergence (POST) herbicides on burcucumber control in soybean were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in southeastern PA. In the tillage and row spacing study, a glyphosate resistant soybean variety was planted in no-till and reduced tillage systems in 38 and 76 cm row spacings. In the POST herbicide experiment, chlorimuron, glyphosate, oxasulfuron, thifensulfuron, and several combinations of these herbicides were applied at two different POST application timings in 38 cm row soybean planted in a reduced tillage system. In the tillage and row spacing study, burcucumber emergence was greatest starting in late May through mid June and mostly ceased by early July, regardless of tillage system or row spacing. Although there was no difference in germination period in either tillage system, preplant tillage increased the number of emerged plants by 110% in 1997 and 70% in 1998 compared to no-till. Row spacing had no effect on burcucumber emergence or biomass production, but did influence soybean yield in 1997. Soybean yield was about 15% higher in the narrow row spacing compared to wider rows. In addition, herbicide treated plots averaged 12% more soybean grain than untreated plots. In general, most POST herbicide programs controlled burcucumber and application timing was not important. In 1997 and 1998, chlorimuron at the high rate, chlorimuron + thifensulfuron, glyphosate, glyphosate + chlorimuron, and glyphosate + oxasulfuron provided 87% or greater control of burcucumber 12 wk after planting (WAP). In both years, these herbicides reduced burcucumber density and biomass by greater than 56 and 96%, respectively.

Effect of row spacing and herbicides on burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus) control in herbicide-resistant corn (Zea mays). 2001. W. R. Esbenshade, W. S. Curran, G. W. Roth, N. L. Hartwig, and M. D. Orzolek. Weed Technol. 15: 348–354.

Experiments examining burcucumber management in glufosinate resistant (GR) and imidazolinone resistant (IMI) corn were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in southeastern Pennsylvania. GR corn was planted in 38- and 76-cm rows and postemergence (POST) treatments of glufosinate and glufosinate plus atrazine were applied to corn at the V4 or V5 growth stage. In a second study, IMI corn was planted in 76-cm rows and fifteen preemergence (PRE) and POST herbicide programs were evaluated. Herbicide treatments included isoxaflutole, prosulfuron, simazine, imazethapyr plus imazapyr, imazamox, chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron, nicosulfuron plus rimsulfuron plus atrazine, prosulfuron plus primisulfuron, and combinations with atrazine. Burcucumber germinated throughout the growing season, with greatest emergence occurring in early June gradually decreasing to minimal emergence by mid July. Glufosinate alone controlled burcucumber 79 to 90% 7 weeks after planting (WAP) regardless of application timing or row spacing. By 10 to 13 WAP, control was 82% or less due to lack of residual control and new burcucumber emergence. Row spacing had little effect on burcucumber emergence or control and appears to have little impact on burcucumber management in corn. In general, PRE herbicide programs were less effective than POST programs, although PRE treatments containing atrazine equaled some POST herbicides. POST applied chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron, nicosulfuron plus rimsulfuron plus atrazine, and prosulfuron plus primisulfuron controlled burcucumber greater than 80 and 90% in 1997 and 1998, respectively. Imazethapyr plus imazapyr and imazamox applied POST controlled burcucumber 66% 10 WAP. Adding atrazine to POST herbicide programs did not increase control with the exception of imazethapyr plus imazapyr.

Tillage and Herbicides Affect Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) Management in Corn. 2000. D.T. Messersmith, W.S. Curran, G.W. Roth, N.L. Hartwig, and M.D. Orzolek. Agron. J. 92:181-185.

The effect of tillage and herbicide application timing was examined on established populations of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) in corn (Zea mays L.). The field study consisted of three tillage regimes (moldboard plow/disk, chisel plow/disk, and no-tillage) and three herbicide treatments; atrazine, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine plus the dimethylamine salt of dicamba, 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid applied preemergence (PRE) or postemergence (POST) and no atrazine plus dicamba (no broadleaf herbicide). Postemergence treatments were applied to 3 to 6-leaf corn and to cotyledon to 8-leaf burcucumber. In two of three field locations, late-season burcucumber dry wt. was approximately 65% less in no-tillage than in the moldboard plow treatment, while no difference in burcucumber dry wt. was observed between chisel plow and no-tillage treatments. Regardless of tillage system, atrazine plus dicamba applied POST was more effective than PRE applications. Corn grain yield was not affected by tillage treatment, but was higher in both the PRE and POST treatments than in the no broadleaf herbicide treatment. Depth of burcucumber seedling emergence was examined in the greenhouse. Pre-germinated burcucumber seeds were placed in the soil at 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm deep. Percent emergence was highest in the 1 to 5 cm depth. Less burcucumber emerged from depths of 10 cm or greater or when burcucumber was placed on the soil surface. These data suggest that tillage and herbicide timing can influence burcucumber control.

Examination of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus) seed germination and dormancy. 2000. W. S. Curran*, Penn State University, University Park; and W. E. Dyer and B. D. Maxwell, Montana State University, Bozeman. Abstr. WSSA 40:64.

Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.), an annual vine, is a problem weed in portions of the U.S. corn belt. Burcucumber seed can survive for long periods in the soil and seed dormancy is likely a factor in their persistence. Several experiments were conducted with seed from burcucumber in order to identify optimum conditions for germination and describe possible mechanisms of dormancy. Controlled environment chamber experiments included cold stratification up to 16 wk at 5 °C, an alternating 25/10 °C temperature regime, effect if seed coat disruption and removal, effect of water and methanol soluble seed coat extracts on seed germination, and effect of oxygen enrichment on seed germination. Most experiments were conducted in the dark at 25 °C for 7 days. In addition, a temperature gradient experiment (10 to 35 °C) was conducted to determine optimum temperature for germination.

Untreated burcucumber seed (intact) did not germinate. Even after 16 wk cold stratification, germination was 5% or less. However, partial seed coat removal increased germination up to 30%. Removing a 1 to 2 mm portion of seed coat (snipped) on the radicle end provided the greatest improvement. Complete seed coat removal (naked) increased germination to as much as 90% and removing half the seed coat was no different than complete removal. Neither water nor methanol soluble extracts had any impact on naked seed germination. Oxygen enrichment did not affect intact seed germination, but did increase snipped seed germination to about 60%. In the temperature gradient experiment, naked seed germination was 84% at 25 °C and only 49 and 42% at 10 and 35 °C, respectively. An alternating day night temperature (25/10 °C) did not improve percent germination compared to constant 25 °C. These experiments support an impermeable seed coat to water and possibly oxygen as contributing factors to burcucumber seed dormancy.

The effect of tillage, row spacing, and herbicide for burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus) management in soybean. 2000. W.R. Esbenshade* and W.S. Curran. Abstr. WSSA 40.

Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.), an annual climbing vine, has become a difficult weed to control in agronomic crops. Tillage and row spacing as well as herbicides can influence weed germination, emergence, and reproduction. In 1997 and 1998, a tillage and row spacing study as well as a herbicide timing experiment were conducted in southeastern PA. A Roundup-Ready/STS soybean was used in both experiments. In the tillage and row spacing study, soybean was planted in no-till and reduced tillage systems in 38 and 76 cm row spacings. Half the plots received a POST application of glyphosate + thifensulfuron at 1.1 kg ai/ha + 4.4 g ai/ha, respectively four weeks after planting. Weekly counts of burcucumber emergence were taken throughout the growing season and soybean grain yield was measured at harvest. In the herbicide experiment, chlorimuron, glyphosate, oxasulfuron, thifensulfuron, and several combinations of these herbicides were applied at three different timings in conventionally seeded soybean planted in 38 inch rows. Weed control, density, and soybean grain yield were measured.

Regardless of tillage system or row spacing, burcucumber emergence was greatest in spring and early summer (May - mid June) and mostly ceased by early July. Although there was no difference in germination period in either tillage system, preplant tillage increased the number of emerged plants by 53% in 1997 and 41% in 1998 compared to no-till. Row spacing had no effect on burcucumber emergence, but did influence soybean yield. The narrow row spacing produced yields about 15 and 4% greater than wider rows, in 1997 and 1998 respectively. In addition, soybean yield in the herbicide treated plots averaged approximately 11% higher than untreated plots. In general, most herbicide programs controlled burcucumber and application timing was not important. The best herbicides for control of burcucumber were chlorimuron, chlorimuron + thifensulfuron, glyphosate, and glyphosate + chlorimuron.

Evaluation of Several Herbicides For Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus) Control In Corn. 1999. D.T. Messersmith, W.S. Curran, N.L. Hartwig, M.D. Orzolek, And G.W. Roth. Weed Technol. 13:520-524.

A postemergence (POST) timing study was conducted on established populations of burcucumber in corn, while a second study examined the residual activity of several herbicides for burcucumber control under greenhouse conditions. In the field study, flumiclorac, halosulfuron, primisulfuron, prosulfuron, and prosulfuron + primisulfuron (45, 71, 40, 40, and 20 + 20 g ai/ha respectively) were applied at two POST timings. Prosulfuron, primisulfuron, and the combination provided greater than 85% control of burcucumber 14 WAP. Flumiclorac and halosulfuron provided 60% control or less by 8 WAP. Timing of the POST applications did not influence burcucumber control by 11 WAP with any herbicide. In the greenhouse, germinated burcucumber seeds were placed in soil treated with atrazine, chlorimuron, primisulfuron, or prosulfuron at normal field use rates. All treatments provided similar residual control early; however by 4 weeks after treatment, control from atrazine was less than 10% compared to 69% for chlorimuron and about 50% for primisulfuron and prosulfuron. This research suggests that prosulfuron and primisulfuron can both be effective for managing burcucumber in corn, while flumiclorac and halosulfuron proved ineffective.

Effect of Emergence Date and Corn Competition on Burcucumber Fecundity. 1999. W. R. Esbenshade and W. S. Curran. NEWSS 53:22.

Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) is an annual climbing vine that produces multiple flushes of seedlings from mid-May to September in agronomic crops. Due to its prolonged germination period, control of burcucumber has been difficult. The effect of emergence date on burcucumber's overall growth and seed production is not fully known.

An experiment examining the effect of burcucumber emergence date and corn (Zea mays L.) competition on burcucumber fecundity was conducted in 1997 and 1998. Burcucumber seedlings were established on approximately 10 day intervals starting in late May through mid-August in corn and a non-crop environment. Measurements including leaf number, vine length, flowering period, overall plant biomass, seed number, and seed viability were determined.

Burcucumber plants in a non competitive environment experienced tremendous growth producing 700 g of dry matter and 4500 seeds per plant in 1997 and 600 g of dry matter and 1740 seeds per plant in 1998. Plant dry matter was greatest in the first establishment date (May 23) in both years and decreased for the establishment dates thereafter. Seed production peaked 21 days after the initial establishment (June 13). Although seed numbers were drastically reduced in comparison to the earlier establishments, plants established as late as 70 days after the initial establishment (August 5) were still able to produce seed. Burcucumber plants grown in corn only produced a fraction of the dry matter and seed of the plants in a non-crop environment in both years of this study. In most cases, burcucumber growth was reduced to about 5% of the growth of non-crop environment grown plants due to the competition by the crop. Although the growth and seed production of burcucumber grown in corn was drastically reduced, plants emerging as late as 50 days after the initial establishment (July 14) were still able to produce seed.

In summary, emergence date plays a vital role in the growth and development of burcucumber. Burcucumber exhibits substantial growth when grown without the competition of a crop. Burcucumber is capable of producing seed even when emerging as late as Aug. 5 in a non-crop environment. Crop competition greatly reduces the growth and seed production potential of burcucumber. No burcucumber seed was produced in a corn crop if burcucumber emerged after mid July.

Effect of Tillage and Herbicide Application Timing on Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) Control in Corn. 1997. D. T. Messersmith and W. S. Curran. WSSA Abstracts 37:245.

A tillage and herbicide timing study was conducted on established populations of burcucumber in corn during 1995 and 1996. The study consisted of three tillage regimes and three herbicide treatments. Tillage treatments were moldboard plow/disk, chisel plow/disk, and no-tillage. Atrazine and dicamba (1791 and 560 g ai ha-1, respectively) were applied to each tillage treatment, either preemergence or postemergence, and were compared to untreated checks. Nonionic surfactant was added to postemergence treatments at 0.25% (v/v). Preemergence treatments were applied before crop/weed emergence, and postemergence treatments were applied to 3 to 6-leaf corn and cotyledonary to 8-leaf burcucumber. In two of three locations, burcucumber control was better in no-tillage than in conventional tillage. No difference in burcucumber biomass was observed between chisel plow and no-tillage treatments. At a third location, tillage system had less affect on burcucumber management, although early season control was less in the chisel plow/disk treatments. Differences in tillage history and climatic conditions may have been responsible for the variability between locations. Regardless of tillage system, postemergence applications were more effective than preemergence applications averaging 91% control compared to 53% control with preemergence treatments. These data suggest that tillage can influence the level of burcucumber control, and that postemergence herbicide applications are more effective than preemergence treatments.

Effect of POST Application Timing of Five Herbicides on Burcucumber Control in Corn. 1997. D.T. Messersmith and W.S. Curran. Proc. NEWSS 51:35.

Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) is becoming an increasingly difficult to control weed in agronomic crops throughout the Northeast. Several new postemergence corn (Zea mays L.) herbicides may be effective on burcucumber, however specific data on burcucumber control is lacking.

A postemergence timing study was conducted on established populations of burcucumber in corn at two Pennsylvania locations in 1995 and again in 1996. Prosulfuron, primisulfuron, halosulfuron, and flumichlorac were applied at a single rate (0.036, 0.036, 0.063, and 0.040 lb ai/A respectively) and two postemergence timings. A prosulfuron + primisulfuron treatment (0.036 lb ai/A) was added to the study in 1996. Crop oil concentrate was included with all treatments at 1.0% (v/v) except flumichlorac which received non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% (v/v). Treatments were applied 10 to 14 days apart either early postemergence to 3-leaf corn and cotyledonary to 2-leaf burcucumber or late postemergence to 6-leaf corn and 5-leaf burcucumber. Individual plot size measured 10 by 25 feet, and treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. Parameters measured included burcucumber density, visual estimates of burcucumber control, and burcucumber biomass production.

Burcucumber emergence started in early May and continued through mid-August each year in the untreated plots. Early June burcucumber density across all locations ranged from 0 to 1 plant/square foot and averaged 0.35 plants/square foot. Regardless of June burcucumber density, untreated plots were over run with burcucumber by late season. Prosulfuron provided 98 and 96% control of burcucumber in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Control with primisulfuron was 85% in 1995 and 93% in 1996, and differences between prosulfuron and primisulfuron were seldom significant. Burcucumber biomass production in the prosulfuron and primisulfuron treatments was not different in either year. The prosulfuron + primisulfuron combination was similar to either product alone. Flumichlorac and halosulfuron were ineffective at providing season long control of burcucumber in both years of the study. The late postemergence treatments appeared to provide better late season control of burcucumber, especially in 1996, although the differences were not significant. This study suggests that prosulfuron, primisulfuron, and prosulfuron + primisulfuron can be effective for managing burcucumber in corn. However, more research is needed to identify optimum postemergence application timing.

Burcucumber Biology and Management in Corn. 1996. D.T. Messersmith and W.S. Curran. Proc. NEWSS 50:71.

Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) is becoming a serious weed problem in agronomic crops throughout the Northeast. Originally found along stream banks and other damp, shady areas, burcucumber has invaded river bottom and upland fields. Burcucumber seed germinate from early May through August emerging from depths up to 6 inches. Control of burcucumber proves to be a challenge since its germination and growth habits are not fully understood.

In 1995, two field studies were conducted on established populations of burcucumber in corn (Zea mays L.). A tillage and herbicide timing study was conducted at a single location. The study consisted of three tillage regimes and three herbicide treatments. Tillage treatments were moldboard plow/disk, chisel plow/disk, and no-tillage. Atrazine and dicamba (1.6 and 0.5 lb ai/A, respectively) were applied to each tillage treatment, either preemergence or postemergence, and were compared to untreated checks. Nonionic surfactant was added to postemergence treatments at 0.25% (v/v). The postemergence treatments were applied to 3 leaf stage, 6 inch corn and 3 leaf stage burcucumber. A postemergence timing study was conducted at two locations. Prosulfuron, primisulfuron, halosulfuron, and flumichlorac (0.036, 0.036, 0.063, and 0.040 lb ai/A respectively) were applied at a single rate and two postemergence timings. Crop oil concentrate was added to all treatments at 1.0% (v/v). The herbicide treatments were compared to untreated checks. The first timing postemergence treatment was applied to 3 leaf stage, 6 inch tall corn and cotyledonary to 2 leaf stage burcucumber. The second timing was applied to 6 leaf , 12 inch corn and 5 leaf stage burcucumber.

Tillage alone had no effect on burcucumber density. However, postemergence applications were more effective than preemergence treatments with the best control achieved in the no-till/postemergence treatment. Prosulfuron provided better than 95% control of burcucumber, followed closely by primisulfuron. Burcucumber biomass between the prosulfuron and primisulfuron treatments was not different. Flumichlorac and halosulfuron were ineffective at controlling burcucumber. Postemergence application timing had no effect on burcucumber control or biomass.