Gary W. Moorman, Professor of Plant Pathology
|Anthracnose||Dead twigs and branches have sunken cankers. Bud death followed by new bud formation and more bud death results in witches’ broom-like proliferation of branch ends as well as very crooked branching patterns. Black fungal fruiting structures are visible on the bark covering newly killed twigs early in the spring. Young shoots are killed. Leaves, especially on lower and inner branches, are blighted and fall early in the season only to be replaced by new leaves in mid-season. Tan, dead areas expand along leaf veins. Large, irregularly shaped areas are killed along the leaf margins and between the veins. Fungal fruiting structures can be found with a magnifying glass along the veins.||Apiognomonia||Prune and destroy dead twigs and branches during dormancy, cutting 3 to 4 inches below the canker. Plant resistant cultivars that have been vegetatively propagated from Bloodgood, Columbia, or Liberty clones of London plane trees. If trees are of high value, benzimidazole can be injected in the autumn before the leaves have fallen, the next spring after the leaves emerge, and again in the autumn to obtain protection of new tissue for the following two to three springs. Or spray chlorothalonil, copper salts, cupric hydroxide, or mancozeb + thiophanate methyl in the spring at bud break and repeatedly until the weather dries and daily temperatures average above 65°F.|
|Bacterial leaf scorch||Oldest leaves brown along their margins and eventually between the veins beginning in mid to late summer on one branch or a few branches on inner and lower portions of the tree. A brown band sometimes develops between the brown and green tissue of the leaf. The browning of leaves progresses to include more leaves toward the ends of branches. Infected trees have delayed bud break in the spring and produce smaller-than-normal leaves.||Xylella fastidiosa||Leafhoppers and spittle bugs carry the bacteria from tree to tree. See the information on this disease in the “Common Plant Diseases” section. Promote plant vigor by protecting the tree from stresses. X. fastidiosa from elm does not infect sycamore or vice versa.|
|Canker stain||London plane and sycamore trees have sparse foliage, small leaves, and elongated sunken cankers on the trunk and larger branches. Beneath the cankers, the wood is stained bluish black or reddish brown. Viewed in cross section, the discolored wood is wedge shaped with the point of the wedge extending toward the center of the trunk or branch.||Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani||Since the fungus enters only through wounds, pruning tools, ropes, ladders, and other equipment must be disinfested immediately after use on a tree before proceeding to another tree. Do not use wound paints since brushes efficiently move spores from tree to tree. Sap-feeding beetles can also transmit the fungus.|
|Powdery mildew||Heavy white fungal growth develops on the upper surface of leaves in late summer and in the autumn. Leaf shape is very distorted.||Microsphaera||Little damage occurs to the tree itself other than deforming the leaf appearance. No control is recommended unless the tree is of very high value. Chlorothalonil, cupric hydroxide, mancozeb + thiophanate methyl, or triadimefon can be applied in late summer to protect leaves. Benzimidazole injection (described under anthracnose) gives some powdery mildew control.|
Anthracnose on leaves and twig.
Powdery mildew symptoms and signs.
Active Ingredients and Trade Names of the Chemicals
|FRAC Group No.||Risk Level||Class||Active Ingredient||REI Restricted Entry Interval||Trade names (EPA Reg. no.)|
|3||2||Triazole||triadimefon||12||Strike (3125-436), Bayleton (432-1360)|
|Copper, complex||copper sulfate||12||Camelot (1812-381), Phyton 27 (49538-3)|
|Copper, fixed||copper hydroxide||48||Camelot (1812-381), Phyton 27 (49538-3)|
|M + M||mancozeb + copper||Junction Fungicide (1812-360)|
|1 + M||thiophanate methyl + chlorothalonil||ConSyst (48234-7), Spectro 90(1001-72)|
|1 + M||thiophanate methyl + mancozeb||Zyban (58185-31)|
Fungicides and Fungicide Resistance Management - Certain fungicides, usually systemic fungicides, are said to be 'at risk' to the development of resistance if they are used repeatedly. See the Risk Level in the above table (1 = low risk; 3 = high risk). The Fungicide Resistance Action Committee has developed a numbering system in which chemicals with the same FRAC Group number have the same mode of action (See http://www.frac.info/frac/index.htm ). It is recommended that chemicals at high risk be used sparingly and in rotation or mixed with chemicals with different modes of actions (different FRAC number).
Notice: The user of this information assumes all risks for personal injury or property damage.
Warning! Pesticides are poisonous. Read and follow all directions and safety precautions on labels. Handle carefully and store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. Dispose of empty containers right away, in a safe manner and place. Do not contaminate forage, streams or ponds.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of Congress, May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences research and extension programs are funded in part by Pennsylvania counties, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Visit Penn State Extension on the web at extension.psu.edu.
Where trade names appear, no discrimination is intended, and no endorsement by Penn State Cooperative Extension is implied.
This publication is available in alternative media on request.
The Pennsylvania State University is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to programs, facilities, admission, and employment without regard to personal characteristics not related to ability, performance, or qualifications as determined by University policy or by state or federal authorities. It is the policy of the University to maintain an academic and work environment free of discrimination, including harassment. The Pennsylvania State University prohibits discrimination and harassment against any person because of age, ancestry, color, disability or handicap, national origin, race, religious creed, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, or veteran status. Discrimination or harassment against faculty, staff, or students will not be tolerated at The Pennsylvania State University. Direct all inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination policy to the Affirmative Action Director, The Pennsylvania State University, 328 Boucke Building, University Park, PA 16802-5901; Tel 814-865-4700/V, 814-863-1150/TTY.