Gary W. Moorman, Professor of Plant Pathology
|Fire blight||Flower clusters are killed and turn dark drown to black. Dead leaves and aborted flower parts remain on the tree. Long, slightly sunken cankers are seen where the dead wood meets the live wood. In the spring, slime may ooze from the canker if the weather is warm and wet. No fungal fruiting structures are found in the canker.||Erwinia amylovora||During dormancy when the weather is dry, prune infected branches, cutting at least 4 inches below the base of the canker. Disinfect pruning tools frequently. Use fertilizatioin practices that do not promote excessive succulent growth. Remove root suckers and water sprouts while they are small. Remove unwanted plants taht are susceptible to the disease from near cultivated plants.|
|Cedarhawthorn rust||Orange-yellow spots form on leaves. Severely affected leaves fall prematurely. Green fruit is deformed.||Gymnosporangium globosum||Plant resistant hawthorns including cockspur thorn, yellow fruited thorn, Crataegus intricata, and Crataegus pruinosa. Apply chlorothalonil, propiconazole, fenerimol, flutolanil, mancozeb + thiophanate methyl, or triadimefon azoxystrobin, or myclobutanil at 10-day intervals beginning just as flower bud break occurs. Do not plant close to junipers.|
|Cedar-quince rust||Petioles, twigs, and thorns swell and become distorted. Fruit is covered with spore horns during the summer. Orange-yellow spots form on leaves, which, if severely affected, fall prematurely.||Gymnosporangium clavipes||Apply chlorothalonil, mancozeb + thiophanate methyl, azoxystrobin, myclobutanil, tridimefon, propiconazole, fenerimol, or flutolanil, at 10-day intervals beginning just as flower bud break occurs. Do not plant close to junipers.|
|Leaf blight and fruit rot||Leaves wilt, turn brown, and die in the spring. Flower clusters die. Fruits turn brown, mummify, and fall.||Monilinia johnsonii||Remove and destroy fallen mummified fruits before bud break occurs.|
|Leaf spot||Many small, reddish-brown to gray leaf spots develop, sometimes with dark-brown borders. Spots may be so numerous that they merge. Infected leaves yellow quickly and fall by August. On twigs, slightly raised, brown, irregular spots form. English hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) and Pauls Scarlet (Crataegus oxycantha pauli) are very susceptible.||Diplocarpon mespili (Entomosporium, asexual stage)||Rake and destroy fallen leaves. Apply chlorothalonil, azoxystrobin, myclobutanil, mancozeb, copper hydroxide, or mancozeb + thiophanate methyl during bud break and at 10-day intervals during wet weather. Two or three applications may be sufficient. Cease spraying if the weather dries.|
Active Ingredients and Trade Names of the Chemicals
|FRAC Group no.||Risk Level||Class||Active ingredient||REI Restricted Entry Interval||Trade names (EPA Reg no.)|
|Triazole||propiconazole||24||Banner MAXX (100-741), Propiconazole (51036-403), Spectator (62719-346-10404), Kestrel (66222-41-81943)|
|triadimefon||12||Strike (3125-436), Bayleton (432-1360)|
|12||Echo (60063-7), PathGuard (60063-7-499), Concorde (72167-24-1812), Pegasus (72167-24-1812)|
|Copper, fixed||copper hydroxide||48||Kocide (352-656), Champion (55146-1)|
|Dithiocarbamate||mancozeb||24||Dithane (707-180), FORE (707-87), Pentathlon (1818-251)|
|1 + M||thiophanate methyl + mancozeb||Zyban (58185-31)|
Fungicides and Fungicide Resistance Management - Certain fungicides, usually systemic fungicides, are said to be 'at risk' to the development of resistance if they are used repeatedly. See the Risk Level in the above table (1 = low risk; 3 = high risk). The Fungicide Resistance Action Committee has developed a numbering system in which chemicals with the same FRAC Group number have the same mode of action (See http://www.frac.info/frac/index.htm ). It is recommended that chemicals at high risk be used sparingly and in rotation or mixed with chemicals with different modes of actions (different FRAC number).
Cedar rust on fruit, leaves and twigs of hawthorn.
Leaf spot caused by Diplocarpon (Entomosporium).
Fire blight of flowers.
Slightly sunken fire blight canker on larger branch.
Notice: The user of this information assumes all risks for personal injury or property damage.
Warning! Pesticides are poisonous. Read and follow all directions and safety precautions on labels. Handle carefully and store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. Dispose of empty containers right away, in a safe manner and place. Do not contaminate forage, streams or ponds.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of Congress, May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences research and extension programs are funded in part by Pennsylvania counties, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
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