Gary W. Moorman, Professor of Plant Pathology
|BACTERIAL LEAF SPOT AND BLIGHT||Water-soaked areas surrounded by yellow halos develop on leaves. Plants slowly die one leaf at a time.||Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae||Purchase plants free of the disease. Discard infected plants; particularly Rieger-types which are systemically infected. Remove infected leaves from Rex and tuberous types because they are not systemically infected. Do not wet leaves when irrigating. Do not propagate from infected plants. Destroy crop debris.|
|BOTRYTIS BLIGHT||Cuttings rot at their base. Tan spots develop on leaves. Established plants rot at the crown. Infected tissue is covered with dusty gray fungal growth.||Botrytis cinerea||Maintain low humidity by spacing plants and venting to improve air circulation. Remove dead and dying flowers and leaves.Apply trifloxystrobin, mancozeb or fludioxonil. Chlorothalonil may be used if plants are not flowering. Do not use one chemical exclusively.|
|FOLIAR NEMATODE||"Plants are stunted. Excessive red pigment develops in infected leaves. Bronzed or water-soaked areas develop on leaves of some cultivars. Fibrousrooted cultivars have small brown leaf spots.Some cultivars exhibit no symptoms despite heavy infection.||Aphelenchoides fragariae||Purchase nematode-free plants. Avoid overhead irrigation and splashing. Discard infected plants.|
|POWDERY MILDEW||White, mealy fungal growth develops on leaves, flowers, and stems. Tissue beneath the fungus may die.||Oidium||Examine plants carefully and frequently to detect the onset of disease. Maintain a fungicide program to protect plants. Apply dodemorph, fenarimol, thiophanate methyl, trifloxystrobin, myclobutanil, piperalin, or triadimefon.|
|PYTHIUM ROT||Seedlings die. Shiny blackened areas develop on the stems and petioles of established on the stems and petioles of established plants at and just above the soil line as plants collapse and die.||Pythium||Plant in pasteurized potting media. Keep hose ends off the ground. Do not overwater. Apply potassium salts of phosphorus acid, etridiazole, etridiazole + thiophanate methyl, fosetyl-Al, or mefenoxam.|
|RHIZOCTONIA CROWN ROT||"Stems rot at the soil line. Plants collapse and die.A fine webbing of fungal growth may be seen between the infected stems and nearby soil particles."||Rhizoctonia||"Plant in pasteurized potting media. To protect healthy plants, apply thiophanate methyl or etridiazole + thiophanate methyl."|
|VIRUSES||Mosaic, malformed leaves, pale yellow ring spots, severe chlorotic mottling of leaves or plant stunting may occur.||Impatients necrotic spot, tobacco ring spot, broadbean wilt, cucumber mosaic, tobacco necrosis virus.||Purchase plants free of symptoms. Discard infected plants. Plant in pasteurized potting media. Maintain good aphid and thrips control to reduce spread.|
Powdery mildew lesions.
Bacterial leaf spot.
Active Ingredients and Trade Names of the Chemicals
|FRAC Group No.||Risk Level||Class||Active ingredient||REI Restricted Entry Interval||Trade names (EPA Reg. No.)|
|1||3||Benzimidazole||thiophanate methyl||12||3336 (1001-69), OHP 6672 (51036-329-59807), Fungo Flo (51036-329-59807),Systec 1998 (48234-12)|
|Triazole||triadimefon||12||Strike (3125-436), Bayleton (432-1360)|
|4||3||Acylanine||mefenoxam||0||Subdue MAXX (100-796)|
|M||1||Chloronitrile||Chlorothalonil||48||Daconil (50534-9), Exotherm Termil (70-223)|
|12||Echo (60063-7), PathGuard (60063-7-499), Concorde (72167-24-1812), Pegasus (72167-24-1812)|
|Dithiocarbamate||mancozeb||24||Dithane (707-180), FORE (707-87), Pentathlon (1818-251)|
|manganese + zinc||24||Protect T/O (1001-65)|
|Phosphite||phosphorus acid salts||4||Alude (71962-1001)|
|potassium phosphate||4||Vital (42519-24)|
Fungicides and Fungicide Resistance Management - Certain fungicides, usually systemic fungicides, are said to be ‘at risk’ to the development of resistance if they are used repeatedly. See the Risk Level in the above table (1 = low risk; 3 = high risk). The Fungicide Resistance Action Committee has developed a numbering system in which chemicals with the same FRAC Group number have the same mode of action (See http://www.frac.info/frac/index.htm). It is recommended that chemicals at high risk be used sparingly and in rotation or mixed with chemicals with different modes of actions (different FRAC number).
Notice: The user of this information assumes all risks for personal injury or property damage.
Warning! Pesticides are poisonous. Read and follow all directions and safety precautions on labels. Handle carefully and store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. Dispose of empty containers right away, in a safe manner and place. Do not contaminate forage, streams or ponds.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of Congress, May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences research and extension programs are funded in part by Pennsylvania counties, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
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