Heating water is one of the most energy-intensive functions on the dairy.

A recent study at Penn State was designed to compare total serum protein and IgG concentrations and apparent efficiency of absorption (AEA) in Holstein heifer calves

A variety of housing types and arrangements can be used to assemble a productive replacement raising system

A variety of housing types and arrangements can be used to assemble a productive replacement raising system

Wow! What a blast National 4-H Congress was! I just got back from National Congress which is held in Atlanta, Georgia. It was an awesome experience. I have never had so much fun in my life, and I met so many new friends, some from PA and many from other states. Pennsylvania had 40 delegates and was one of the larger delegations there. We had to be at the Pittsburgh Airport at 4:30 am Black Friday morning, and our plane arrived in Georgia around 7 am, but we actually didn't have to be at registration until 4:30 pm so we had a considerable amount of downtime to start the week.

on left Ashley Sloan.  Right Caroline Lynch

One amazing experience, two Indiana County 4-H members, 42 states and 1 territory, 912 delegates, and infinite memories! This can explain the 2011 National 4-H Congress held in Atlanta, Georgia, November 25-29. It is so hard to begin with just one thing to explain this amazing trip. I guess to start would be the plane ride. Both Garrett and my first plane ride started with Garrett being super excited about it, and I just was a little bit freaked out by it. We left the airport at 6:50 am on Friday to take an hour and fifteen minute flight to Georgia.

Photo 1 -- Salt build-up on the soil surface in a high tunnel. Photo J. Esslinger.

High salt levels in soils can affect plant yield and cause salt injury including burnt leaf margins and stunted plants. In the field, saline soils are not common in Pennsylvania. But plastic high tunnels keep the rain from flushing nutrients and salts out of the root zone. Extension Educators tested soils in six high tunnels across the state this summer and found three with soil salinity high enough to affect crops.

Leah Craig, front row, second from right, with Team Horse Power - Photo: John Hudson Photography

Youth Recognized for Achievements in Pennsylvania 4-H Team Horse Power

Though many of us expected to find spotted wing drosophila (SWD) in Pennsylvania in 2011, the widespread occurrence and sheer numbers found during the fall in some locations were surprising.

We aim to use resources wisely, including soil nutrients. Soil testing is as an important tool for determining the amounts of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium in the soil. Using these levels, informed decisions can be made on adding additional amounts of these nutrients to the soil to reach production goals.

Two York County 4-H youth compete at the national skill-a-thon contest.

Thoughts shared from our York County 4-H Center Board.

Spring will arrive in a few short months and thoughts of transplanting will be on everyone's mind and priority list. Assuming the seed and transplant order was made several months ago for both local and Southern tray plants, there are several important plant characteristics that will help you determine if the transplants you intend to plant will establish quickly and grow rapidly or fail in the field.

Since both my grandfather and grandmother on my father’s side came from Ireland in the early 1900’s, the potato has always been a staple at every meal. Today the potato is sometimes looked on with distain in our health conscious society and also as we strive to fight obesity in both adults and children. This is misguided since we know that the potato is a nutritionally rich tuberous vegetable that is a good source of starch and fiber.

With all of the rain that we have had over the last several months, many homeowners have had to deal with an excess of stormwater. How clean is that stormwater that runs off of your property or off of your neighbors?