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Watershed Publications

Learn more about watersheds and how they work. Contamination, steps to prevent it, and how to restore waterways that are already damaged. Youth publications are available in this collection as well.

Vertical flow wetlands (VFW) are a relatively new tool for treating waters acidified by mining or acid deposition. VFWs in the Mosquito Creek Watershed Restoration Project, located in Elk and Clearfield counties, are used as examples to describe this water treating tool.

A brief introduction and instructional guide to using live staking as an inexpensive and simple technique to restoring eroding stream banks.

Limestone sand has come into wide use in the treatment of waters acidified by acid rain or acid mine drainage. Its low cost makes it especially attractive, particularly at remote sites.

PDF, 137.3 kB

The Biotic Index Card (BIC) is a simple tool to evaluate the overall health of a stream. Simple insect nets can be used to capture stream macroinvertebrates which can then be identified and categorized using the BIC card. The overall score produced by the BIC process will tell you the health of the stream.