In a meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of calcium and calcium + vitamin D on fracture risk and bone mineral density, it was concluded that in persons over 50 years of age, supplementation with calcium or calcium plus vitamin D may help to preserve bone mineral density and reduce the risk of fractures.
This article describes how physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. The article estimates the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as ‘opportunity cost savings’, which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities.
The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62+/-12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean differences pre- to post-program. Strength training was associated with significant improvements in several dimensions of body image, health-related quality of life, and physical activity behaviors, satisfaction, and comfort among rural aging women—an often underserved population that stands to benefit considerably from similar programs.