Food Technology

If your product contains ingredients that spoil quickly at room temperature, how do you intend to maintain quality and prevent growth of disease-causing microorganisms and spoilage?

Acidified Foods

What is an acidified food, why is acidity critical for safety and shelf-life of preserved food.

Table of pH values for common foods FDA Bad Bug Book

PDF, 150.6 kB

Technical manual on pH theory and the use of pH electrodes to measure product acidity. GLI International and Hach Company

PDF, 156.5 kB

From Breidt, F and others. 2010. Use of Linear Models for Thermal Processing of Acidified Foods. Journal of Food Protection Trends. 30(5): 268-272.

How to Measure the pH of Liquid and Solid Foods, How to Calibrate a pH Meter, and How to Measure Water Activity in Foods. From the Northeast Center for Food Entrepreneurship, Cornell University.

Dressing and Sauces

Home Canning

Often the first place to look when developing a food preservation process is university tested methods for home canners.

Many approved canning, freezing, and drying processors for safe food production.

The "USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning" contains preparation and heat processing methods that have been scientifically determined to be safe.

The Cooperative Extension system has been publishing safe home food preservation recommendations since 1909. In the nearly 100 years, we have come a long way in making home food preservation exceptionally safe.

Dairy Products

Milk based products require special technologies to keep them safe.

Resources to help dairy food processors improve the safety and quality of dairy foods and meet regulatory requirements. Our content is targeted to all dairy food processors—with an emphasis on Pennsylvania processors—including raw milk providers, artisan cheese makers, regional dairies, and larger Grade A processors.

Technical resources, fact sheets, equipment, newsletter, courses on cheese making. University of Wisconsin, Center for Dairy Research.

Established in 1998 to assist small commercial dairies in finding information about on-farm and artisan processing, this site now also serves homesteaders, suburban kitchen cheese makers and food-lovers seeking sources of wholesome dairy foods and the tools to produce them.

Jams and Jellies

Many small processors make jams and jellies because they are easy to make in small amounts. But there are specific standards, regulations, and technologies to keep in mind when making a successful commercial product.
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Nebraska Extension: Food Processing for Entrepreneurs Series

PDF, 377.4 kB

Venture Newsletter. Cornell University New York State Agriculture Experiment Station

21 CFR PART 150 Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products

Shelf-Life Determination


This guidance document has been developed to help food operators to determine the shelf life of their food products and to apply the appropriate date marking. It provides useful information to assist food processors and for other food operators preparing and handling foods for retail sale. From the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries.


Center for Science in the Public Interest

Refrigerated Products

PDF, 25.5 kB

Refrigerated foods are usually preserved by maintaining low temperatures, but the FDA recommends other hurdles to prevent bacterial growth such as low water activity or pH below 4.6. North Carolina State University Department of Food Science

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Concerns associated with producing foods requiring refrigeration. North Carolina State University Department of Food Science

Fruit and Vegetable Processing

Online book containing information on how to start a small scale fruit and vegetable processing company, including processing, production and financial information. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin - 127

Meat Products

The origin of meat processing is lost in antiquity but probably began when mankind learned that salt is an effective preservative. Sausage making evolved as an effort to economize and preserve meat that could not be consumed fresh at slaughter. In sausage making, quality standards are maintained while using most parts of the animal carcass. North Dakota State University

An organization of approximately 70 meat goat producers dedicated to the development of stable, prosperous meat goat enterprises under humane and environmentally sound conditions in New York State.

Wine and Hard Cider Technology

So you're looking to start a winery in the state of Pennsylvania? This web page provides you with a list of "getting started" resources that are important for you to read through: before, during, and after you get started.

Penn State Extension offers resources for beginning and expanding hard cider operations and their support industries.