Tick Season Has Arrived!
Posted: April 21, 2014
- Living in Central Pennsylvania horses, dogs, cats, and family members experiencing tick problems. It is not uncommon to remove four or five ticks each day from a pet, especially horses and ourselves. People and horses have been diagnosed with Lyme disease and know the devastating symptoms and the cost of treatment of the disease.
- Lectures by recognized veterinarians have been presented to learn more of the disease. Lecturers agree that more research is needed to fully understand Lyme disease in horses. Given the fact that numerous horses have been diagnosed with Lyme disease in this area by recognized veterinary facilities, one must take an aggressive attitude that horses can be afflicted with Lyme disease. Even if the tick does not cause a disease it is frustrating to think that a tiny creature is drinking the horse’s blood!
Understanding Lyme Disease
- Understand the stages of
the tick’s life cycle.
- There are ticks of many varieties and all ticks have
three developmental stages: larvae, nymph and adult.
- The tick that causes the
most concern is the “deer tick” or “black legged ticks”, for when bitten by a
deer tick that is inflicted with the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdoferi,
it can lead to Lyme disease. Does this mean that all deer ticks that bite and
attach to a host have the bacteria that will cause Lyme disease? No it doesn’t,
but one cannot tell if the tick is a danger just by its appearance.
- The deer tick is not selective in its host, for it is attracted to a variety of wild and domestic species, including humans. Rodents, cats, dogs, birds, cattle and yes even horses can be bitten by the deer tick.
- During the larvae stage the tick is
about the size of a small “dot” and is ready to look for a host victim.
- Immature deer ticks hatch from eggs and can become infected with Borrelia
burgdorferi if they take a blood meal on a rodent which had already been
infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.
- This tick then may transmit the infection
to new hosts when it takes subsequent blood meals. When the tick attaches to
the host it begins its blood meal, meaning that it engorges its head into the
host and absorbs the blood of the host.
- The larvae must have a blood meal before they molt or change into the next stage. They live for 2 years even during the winter months.
- The ticks attach to a host and feed for 12-24 hours
before they can transmit the bacteria to infect the new host.
- Begins after feeding. The larvae drop off their host and molt or transform into
a nymph usually in the fall.
- The nymph remains inactive during the winter and
then in early spring becomes active again.
- The nymph, if infected in its larvae
stage, attaches onto another host and feeds for 4-5 days where the body of the
tick will swell with blood.
- The nymph drops off
the host and molts into an adult. The adults seek new hosts throughout the fall
hiding in tall grasses or on tree limbs and they become inactive.
- When temperatures rise they
begin looking for a host in an effort to obtain a blood meal and mate and
reproduce. Adult female ticks attach to the host for about a week and feed,
whereas males feed only intermittently.
- Mating may take place on or off the host and is completed only after a blood meal. After mating, the female drops off the host and lays eggs beneath leaves and grasses. The eggs hatch in the summer and the two-year cycle begins again.
Examine Pets Daily
- One can feel the small bump that usually predicts
an attached tick.
- Brushing will not remove the tick, but by using tweezers and
grasping as close to the host’s skin as possible grasp the head of the tick and
pull straight back taking care not to break the blood body pouch. Difficulties
may arise if the head of the tick remains in the host and only the body is
removed. Squishing the body sack of the tick releases the toxin.
- Apply antibiotic ointment to the attachment site if the tick
mouth parts break off and remain in the site, or if there is an open wound.
- Remember if the tick is removed before the 12-24 hour time period the chances of contacting Lyme disease is slim. Unfortunately, often it is not known how long the tick has been attached and that is where extreme concern should be noted.
Prevention of Lyme disease in humans, dogs, and cats has been addressed for
- Tick repellents containing the chemical permethrin are especially
effective in preventing the tick from attaching.
- Sprays and ointments can be used on humans and your veterinarian can supply you with applications for dogs and cats that can help prevent tick attachments. Often the tick can still attach, but will die upon feeding.
- There has not been much
research done on Lyme disease in horses and it is debated on whether a horse can
get Lyme disease. It has been found that 75% of horses living in areas with
high concentrations of ticks will test positive for antibodies to the organism,
which makes it difficult to know if the horse has Lyme disease or not.
- Horses living in areas infected with ticks may go on to develop symptoms of Lyme disease or may remain clinically healthy. Lyme disease occurs in less than 10% of the horses where the tick has attached, for not all ticks carry Borrelia burdgorferi.
Symptoms of Lyme Disease In Horses
- Fever, shifting lameness that
can’t be explained by injury or work level, poor performance, personality
changes, laminitis (founder), arthritis, edema, joint swelling, eye inflammation
- Since the symptoms are the same as in many other horse
ailments it makes it difficult to accurately diagnosis the disease, plus
symptoms can take a long time to develop.
- A blood test must be obtained and the
results can indicate the horse has been exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi, but not
to whether it is a current active infection.
- Lyme disease is treated with
antibiotics which last over several weeks. A response to the therapy is usually
observed within 2-5 days after start of treatment.
- The antibiotics may be administered orally, intramuscular or intravenously. Often anti-inflammatory drugs and/or medicines to help replace the normal intestinal bacteria killed by the antibiotics are given to the horse. Unfortunately, there is not a vaccine for Lyme disease currently licensed for horses. With continued research it is the hope that vaccines may be available for both horses and humans in the near future.
Annoying Mark the Tick Bite May Leave Behind
- Sometimes there is not a sign of where the tick is after removal, but
more often than not there is a loss of hair around the area and a scabby bump.
- This can cause a problem when one is trying to maintain a beautiful coat
covering for showing purposes.
- Horses can sometimes help owners locate the tick that has attached to them. Often the horse will begin biting at a certain location on their body and he/she
will itch aggressively the location where a tick is embedded.
- It has been noted that March, April, May, and June, then Oct, Nov, and Dec are the main times when multiple tick attachments are found, though ticks can be found year round.
- The tick does not seem to have
a preferred time of day or weather condition in which to attach-they find a host
on sunny, rainy, cool and warm days.
- Ticks are more
select in the parts of the horse they like to attach onto.
- The majority
of tick bites are on the neck, chest, throat, ears, jowl and chin of the horse. Often ticks attach to mares in these areas, whereas in geldings the tick seems to like the genital areas the best.
- Horses often tolerate removal of ticks and appear pleased when removal is accomplished. Placing a small dab of “Swat” or some other type of antibiotic ointment helps heal the wound quicker and seems to help the hair grow back faster (if the hair is missing). This ointment also seems to help keep other pests, such as flies, from being attracted to the site. If the horse continues to itch, apply an anti-itch cream, which seems to ease the urge to rub and itch.
Disposal of Removed Tick
- Remember that after removing the tick that it is not
dead and one must find a way to end its life before it can attach to another
- One suggestion is to keep a baggie or small jar in the barn and place the removed tick(s) in the baggie/jar and completely seal it. Then properly dispose of the container with the removed ticks, where there is no chance for the tick's escape.
- If you are experiencing tick issues with your pets discuss
prevention and treatments with your veterinarians.