Body condition scoring is a method of evaluating fatness or thinness in cows according to a five-point scale and using the score to fine-tune dairy herd nutrition and health.
This video provides examples of cows scored one through five on the body condition scoring system. It shows how to use visual and tactile appraisal when scoring an animal, emphasizing the area around the loin and tail head. (VHS--15:00) To order this video, call 1-800-770-2111; do not contact the Publications Distribution Center.
Various factors related to environment, cow health and nutrition, and herdmates can affect estrous behavior.
Calf health, growth, and productivity rely heavily on nutrition and management practices. Every heifer calf born on a dairy farm represents an opportunity to maintain or increase herd size, to improve the herd genetically, or to improve economic returns to the farm. The objectives of raising the newborn calf to weaning age are optimizing growth and minimizing helath problems. To accomplish these goals, it is necessary to understand the calf's digestive system, immune system, and nutrient needs, as well as the feed options available to meet those needs.
This video explains the unique developmental process of the rumen as it occurs in today's calves and shows how feeding management and nutrition can influence its development. The video details the anatomical changes in the four stomach compartments of the ruminant from birth through the adult animal. It demonstrates the practical applications of feeding management, and calf feeding systems that can help the dairy producer achieve healthy and well-grown replacement animals. Also available in Spanish. (VHS--33:20) To order this video, call 1-800-770-2111; do not contact the Publications Distribution Center.
This Video explains the ruminant's unique digestive system and shows how feeding management and nutrition can influence its function. Detailed is the physiology of the four stomach compartments and the complexities involved in digestion of feeds and demonstrates the practical applications in feeding management that can help the dairy producer achieve high levels of milk production. (VHS--32:00) To order this video, call 1-800-770-2111; do not contact the Publications Distribution Center.
Proper feeding of the dairy cow is complicated and requires a combination of scientific knowledge, creativity, and good management skills to balance the needs of the rumen microorganisms and the needs of the animal.
Feeding adequate quantities of high-quality forages is the basis of profitable milk and livestock production. Forage production, harvest, storage, and feed practices have changed greatly over the past 50 years in Pennsylvania, and silage has become a staple forage. High-level management and sizeable financial outlays are necessary to efficiently produce, harvest, store, and feed silage. The information in the publication should enable you to make more effective decisions about harvesting, managing, and feeding silage.
Topics covered in this publication include information about characteristics of the estrous cycle, signs of heat, factors affecting estrous behavior, the timing of insemination, milk progesterone analysis as a tool for heat detection, evaluation of heat detection efficiency, and estrous detection aids.
This video reviews heat detection in dairy herd management, including physiological events in the estrus cycle, primary and secondary signs of estrus, factors affecting estrus behavior, timing of insemination, and management practices that optimize heat detection efficiency. (VHS--21:00) To order this video, call 1-800-770-2111; do not contact the Publications Distribution Center.
Dairy replacements are the foundation of any dairy enterprise. Improvement of a herd is possible when culled cows are replaced by well fed, healthy, genetically superior, and properly managed 2-year-old heifers.
Important new regulations in Pennsylvania have resulted in drastic changes to farmers' milk checks. Federal order reform has implemented Multiple Component Pricing (MCP), which eliminates flat milk prices and instead pays farmers for the actual amounts of various components in their milk. This publication explains MCP, illustrates the new milk check, and instructs farmers on performing simple calculations to compare their new milk prices to order averages. A final section describes steps farmers can take to obtain higher component levels from their herds.
On many dairy farms, heifer management is not the most critical part of the day-to-day activities; however, chronic neglect of nutrition, feeding manage ment, and preventative health care can lead to stunted growth.
Horses are used in a wide variety of activities throughout Pennsylvania and adjoining states. Most of these horses are owned and managed for recreation or sport rather than for profit. One of the main expenses in owning a horse is feed. To minimize feed costs, it is important to keep horses healthy and feed them a balanced ration that meets their nutritional needs.
One of the greatest expenses of owning a horse is feed. Feed costs can be minimized by maintaining productive horse pastures. Productive pastures also are attractive and can improve horse health. This video not only provides advice on horse and pasture management, but also suggests easy-to-follow steps to ensure that pastures remain healthy and productive. (VHS--17:00) To order this video, call 1-800-770-2111; do not contact the Publications Distribution Center.
This manual is designed to help dairy farmers keep their herds healthy and economically productive. It also should be of value to veterinarians, county extension agents, nutritionists, and business consultants working with dairy produce
This illustrated guide includes plant layouts and facilities, regulatory agencies and utilities, management, and elementary feasibility calculations for the meat packing business.
Within the cattle industry there has been a shift away from hiring professional technicians to artificially breed cattle and toward artificial insemination by owners/inseminators. This six-page publication details reproductive anatomy and artificial insemination methods for cattle.
It is essential to understand the primary and secondary signs of heat in order to achieve accurate and efficient heat detection.