Herbicides for small grains
Herbicides for small-grains
See specific product label to determine correct rate for the soil type and weed species found in individual fields.
- A good small-grain stand in very competitive and normally does not require a herbicide treatment.
- It is important to control all existing vegetation at planting time in no-till production.
|2,4-D amine 4S||Full tiller to prejointing (growth stages 3–6) and harvest aid||0.5–2.0 pt||0.25–1.0||May be used on wheat, barley, rye, and oats. Use lower rates for small annual weeds. Use lower rate (0.25–0.5 pt/A) if underseeded with legume (alfalfa, red or white clover are labeled; vetch and sweet clover will be severely injured). Spraying small grains too young or after jointing can result in reduced yields or uneven ripening. In general, apply when small grain is 4 to 8 inches tall. Oats, especially ‘Pennuda,’ are more sensitive to 2,4-D than other small grains. May be tank- mixed with Harmony Extra SG, Banvel, or Buctril. To control weeds that interfere with harvest, apply 1–2 pt/A when grain is in the hard dough stage. (Only certain 2,4-D products have all of these small grains listed under preharvest.)|
|2,4-D LVE 4E||Full tiller to prejointing (growth stages 3–6) and harvest aid||0.5–2.0 pt||0.25–1.0||For use on wheat, barley, rye, and oats. Use only 0.5 pt/A for oats. Use lower rates for annual weeds. For wild garlic or onion control, apply 1.5–2.0 pt. Avoid use if temperatures are expected to exceed 75°F. Also may be applied at 1–2 pt/A when grains are in the hard dough stage to sup- press large weeds that may interfere with harvest. (Only certain 2,4-D products have all of these small grains listed.)|
|Aim 1.9EW/2EC (carfentrazone)||Up to jointing stage (growth stages 1–5)||0.5–2 fl oz||0.13–0.26 oz||For use on wheat, barley, and oats to control certain broadleaves. In the spray solution include nonionic surfactant and NIS or AMS. Apply before weeds are 4 inches tall. May be tank-mixed with 2,4-D, MCPA, or other common small grain herbicides to improve control and increase weed spectrum. Some research has shown that Aim provides suppression of Star-of-Bethlehem and speedwell.|
|Axial XL 0.42L (pinoxaden)||Wheat and barley; Two-leaf to preboot (growth stages 1–8)||16.4 fl oz||0.053||Apply Axial XL to wheat or barley at 16.4 fl oz/A to control certain grassy weeds such as annual ryegrass, foxtails, barnyardgrass, and wild oat. (Apply Axial XL before weeds have more than 5 leaves on the main stem.) Axial XL does not control downy brome on ACCase-resistant grasses. Axial XL has a built-in adjuvant system, so additional surfactants are generally not required. Tank-mix with other labeled herbicides to enhance weed control spectrum. Axial TBC is a premix of pinoxaden (Axial) + florasulam (in Orion) and Axial Star is a combination of pinoxaden (Axial) + fluroxypyr (Starane); both products control annual grasses and broadleaves.|
|Buctril 2E (bromoxynil)||Emergence to boot stage (growth stages 1–9)||1–2 pt||0.25–0.5||For use on fall-seeded wheat, barley, rye and oats. May be applied to a small-grain/alfalfa underseeding. Apply before weeds have more than four leaves or are 2 inches tall, or rosettes exceed 1 inch in diameter. Use flat fan nozzles and a minimum of 10 gal/A for best results. Weak on chickweed and henbit. May be tank-mixed with Harmony Extra SG, MCPA, 2,4-D, or Banvel/Clarity.|
|Bronate 2+2 (bromoxynil + MCPA)||Three-leaf to preboot (growth stages 2–8)||1–2 pt||0.25–0.5||More active than Buctril or MCPA alone. For control of corn chamomile, mayweed, groundsel, henbit, knawel, and others when air temperature is above 60°F.|
|Callisto 4SC (mesotrione)||Oats only: Preemergence or Postemergence||3–6 fl oz||0.094–0.188||Apply Callisto either pre or post to oats only (Callisto should not be applied to other small grains.) If pre, apply 6 fl oz/A Callisto prior to oat emergence. If post, apply 3 fl oz/A Callisto after oat emergence but before weeds reach 5 inches tall. Include necessary adjuvants in post treatment. Callisto controls many broadleaf weeds. Callisto may cause temporary injury of the oat crop. See label for additional use restrictions.|
|Clarity 4S / Banvel 4S (dicamba)||Full tiller to jointing (growth stages 3–6) and preharvest||2–4 fl oz||0.06–0.12||Apply prior to jointing on fall-seeded barley and wheat. On spring-seeded oats, apply before five-leaf stage. May be tank-mixed with Buctril or 2,4-D to broaden spectrum of control. Do not use if legumes are underseeded. Clarity may be used as a preharvest treatment in wheat and barley only. May apply up to 8 fl oz/A at least 7 days before harvest to control weeds that may interfere with harvest. Refer to Clarity label for additional precautions.|
|Glory 75WDG (metribuzin)||Wheat and barley: 2-leaf to 4-tiller growth stage (1–4)||1–4 oz||0.047–0.19||Glory currently has a section 24(c) special local need registration in Pennsylvania for control of ALS-resistant common chickweed in winter wheat and barley. The typical use rate is 1–4 oz/ acre either in the fall or spring when the crop is in the 2-leaf to 4-tiller growth stage. Glory can be tank-mixed with other small grain herbicides to broaden control spectrum. Certain wheat and barley varieties are sensitive to metribuzin. Refer to the Glory label for additional details on varieties and other use restrictions. In Penn State field trials, metribuzin alone or in combination pro- vided greater than 90% chickweed control. In general, fall-applied herbicide generally provided more consistent control of common chickweed, but spring metribuzin treatments were adequate as well. For best results, apply metribuzin when chickweed is small (4–6 inches in diameter).|
|Harmony Extra SG 50DF (thifensulfuron + tribenuron||Wheat and barley: Two-leaf to before visible flag leaf (growth stages 1–7) Spring oats: Three-leaf to before jointing (growth stages 2–5)||0.45–0.9 oz||0.014–0.028||For use on fall-seeded wheat, barley, and spring oats to control wild garlic and broadleaf weeds. Apply at a rate of 0.45 oz to 0.9 oz/A on wheat and barley and 0.45 oz to 0.6 oz/A on oats. Rates depend on type of weeds and severity. Do not use on Ogle, Porter, or Premier oat varieties. For garlic control use higher rates of Harmony Extra SG plus 2,4-D when garlic is less than 12 inches tall. Always premix Harmony Extra SG in water before adding to the spray tank. If water is the carrier, include a nonionic surfactant at 1 qt/100 gal. Reduce surfactant rate to 0.5 to 1 pt/100 gal of water if nitrogen solution or 2,4-D are included as additives. Tank-mixing with Banvel or Buctril may result in reduced control of certain broadleaf weeds. Do not tank-mix with Malathion. Any crop may be planted 45 days after application. See “Herbicide Resistance Management” for more information.|
|Harmony SG 50DF (thifensulfuron)||Wheat and barley: Two-leaf to before visible flag leaf (growth stages 1–7) Spring oats: Three-leaf to before jointing (growth stages 2–5)||0.45–0.9 oz||0.014–0.028||Harmony SG contains the single active ingredient thifensulfuron and can be used on fall-seeded wheat, barley, and spring oats to control wild garlic and broadleaf weeds. The common rate on wheat and barley is 0.75 oz/A, but higher or lower rates may be used. Apply only 0.45 to 0.6 oz/A to oats, and do not use on Ogle, Porter, or Premier varieties. Tank-mix with other herbicides to increase weed control spectrum. Water or liquid nitrogen solution may be used as carrier. Include necessary adjuvants in tank. Harmony SG also may be used as a preplant burndown application before small grain emergence. Refer to label for other use restrictions. See “Herbicide Resistance Management” for more information. Unity contains the same active ingredient as Harmony but is a 75WDG formulation. The rate range is 0.3–0.6 oz/A Unity.|
|Huskie 2.06L (pyrasulfotole + bromoxynil)||First-leaf to flag-leaf emergence (growth stage 1–7)||11–15 oz||0.18–0.24||Huskie may be used on wheat, barley, and triticale. Huskie controls many annual broadleaf weeds. In some university trials, Huskie provided control of marestail at the rosette stage when applied in the spring. Be sure to include necessary adjuvants. See label for additional use restrictions.|
|MCPA amine or ester 4 lb/gal||Full tiller to prejoint stage (growth stages 3–6)||0.5–1.0 pt||0.25–0.5||For use on wheat, barley, rye, and oats. Safer on oats and small grains underseeded with legumes than 2,4-D. For best results, apply while weeds are small, typically when cereal is 4–8 inches tall. May be used on small-grain/legume underseedings (amine only), but use the lower rate (0.25–0.5 pt) and apply in 5–10 gal water/A; legumes should be 2–3 inches tall and cereal should be 8 inches tall to provide canopy to protect legume.|
|Orion 2.37L Florasulam + MCPA) (label pending)||Three-leaf to jointing (growth stage 3–6)||17 fl oz||0.31||Orion may be used on wheat, barley, oats, rye, and triticale. Orion controls many annual broad- leaf weeds. Be sure to include necessary adjuvants. See label for additional use restrictions. Researchers at Penn State have not yet examined the effect of this herbicide on weed control in small grains.|
|Osprey 4.5 WDG (mesosulfuron)||Emergence to jointing stage (growth stages 1–5)||4.75 oz||0.013||For use in winter wheat only. In our region, Osprey will be primarily targeted for control of annual ryegrass, including ACCase-resistant biotypes and downy brome. The use rate is 4.75 oz/A. Always include MSO (methylated seed oil) at 1.5 pt/A or a “basic blend” type adjuvant (NIS or MSO plus an ammonium nitrogen fertilizer source) at 0.8–1.6 pt/A. Applications should be made when weeds are young and actively growing at the one-leaf to two-tiller stage. To broaden weed control spectrum, Osprey may be tank-mixed with other herbicides including Harmony Extra SG, Harmony SG, MCPA, Buctril, and Stinger. Water is the preferred carrier for Osprey, but a spray solution of no more than 15% liquid nitrogen can be used. Do not topdress with nitrogen fertilizer within 14 days following an Osprey application. Certain insecticides and fungicides may be tank-mixed. Do not apply Osprey within 30 days of harvesting wheat forage, and 60 days for hay, grain, and straw. Soybeans can be planted after 90 days of application; corn after 12 months; and alfalfa after 10 months. Refer to the label for other use restrictions. Since Osprey is an ALS-inhibitor herbicide, see “Herbicide Resistance Management” for more information.|
|Peak 57WDG (prosulfuron)||Three-leaf to before visible second node (growth stages 2–6)||0.25–0.5 oz (1 pack / 6–12 A)
||0.14–0.29 oz||For use on wheat, barley, oats, rye, and triticale, to control wild garlic and broadleaf weeds. For best results apply when weeds are small and use the 0.5 oz/A rate if used alone. Always include an oil concentrate (1–4 pt/A) or nonionic surfactant (1–2 qt/100 gal) in the spray mixture. Liquid fertilizer may be used as the carrier; include a nonionic surfactant. May be tank-mixed with Banvel/Clarity, 2,4-D, MCPA, or Buctril to broaden weed spectrum; however, certain application timing restrictions may apply. Do not apply organophosphate (op) insecticide 15 days before or 10 days after Peak application. Be cautious of crop rotation restrictions (10 mo. for soybeans and 22 mo. for alfalfa; see label for other cropping restrictions). See “Herbicide Resistance Management” for more information.|
|PowerFlex HL 13WDG (pyroxsulam)||Wheat only: Three-leaf to jointing (growth stages 3–6)||2.0 oz||0.016||PowerFlex can be used on wheat and triticale only. The PowerFlex label claims control or sup- pression of certain grass and broadleaf weeds, including annual ryegrass and downy brome. Be sure to include necessary adjuvants (NIS, COC, or MSO). May be applied in a liquid N fertilizer carrier (but no more than 50% fertilizer carrier and 30 lb N/A); use only NIS in this solution. Soybeans can be planted 3 months after application. See label for additional use restrictions.|
|Prowl H2O 3.8CS (pendimethalin)||Wheat or triticale: First-leaf to before the flag leaf is visible (growth stages 1–7)||1.5–3 pt||0.7–1.4||Apply Prowl H2O at 1.5-3 pt/A to wheat or triticale between growth stage 1–7 but before weed emergence. For best results, apply Prowl H2O once the wheat rows are visible and before weeds have emerged. Any emerged weeds will not be controlled, so tank mix to control them. Prowl controls many annual grass and broadleaf weeds. Wheat or triticale must be planted 0.5–1.0 inch deep to avoid crop injury. See label for additional use restrictions.|
|Roundup 3S¹/Roundup WeatherMax 4.5S, glyphosate1||Preharvest aid on wheat, (hard dough stage, <30% moisture) feed barley, or spot treatment||1–2 pt||0.5–1.0||For use on wheat only. Roundup products can be used preharvest on feed barley. Apply after the hard dough stage (<30% moisture) and at least 7 days before harvest. Wheat stubble may be grazed immediately after harvest. Do not apply to wheat grown for seed. Spot treatments are permitted in all cereal crops. Apply before heading in small grains and do not treat more than 10% of field. Roundup/glyphosate will kill the treated crop. Be cautious of drift.|
|Sharpen 2.85SC (saflufenacil)||Preplant or preemergence in wheat, barley, oats, rye, triticale||1–2 fl oz||0.022–0.044||Apply Sharpen either preplant or preemergence for burndown and/or limited residual control of certain annual broadleaf weeds. Tank-mix with other herbicides and include the necessary additives in the spray mixture for burndown applications. Do not apply Sharpen if crop has emerged. Sharpen has a harvest aid label for use in wheat, barley, and triticale.|
|Starane 1.5L||Two-leaf to early boot (growth stages 2–9)||0.5–0.67 pt||0.09–0.13||For use on wheat, barley, triticale, and oats. The Starane label claims to control bedstraw, chickweed, hemp dogbane, prickly lettuce, ragweed, and velvetleaf and to suppress bindweed, wild buckwheat, mustard species, and others. Researchers at Penn State found that Starane provides good control of ALS-resistant common chickweed. Be sure to follow all directions on the label if using this product. Premixes with Starane (fluroxypyr) include Starane Flex (fluroxypyr + florasulam [in Orion]) and Pulsar (fluroxypyr + dicamba).|
|or Starane 2.8L (fluroxypyr)||0.3–1.4 pt|
|Stinger 3S (clopyralid)||Three-leaf to early boot (growth stages 2–9)||0.25–0.33 pt||0.1–0.125||For use on wheat, barley, and oats. For best results, apply while weeds are actively growing. For Canada thistle, apply when thistle is 1–2 feet tall. May be tank-mixed with any other small-grain herbicide to increase weed spectrum. (Curtail is a premix of clopyrid and 2,4-D. See product label for details.) Nitrogen solution can be used as a carrier. Do not use plant residues or manure from animals that consumed forage from treated areas for compost or mulch where susceptible plants may be grown the following season. (Water quality advisory)|
|Valor SX 51WDG (flumioxazin)||Early preplant in wheat only||1-2 oz||0.032-0.064||For use in wheat only as a 30-day early preplant burndown treatment. Valor improves control of horseweed and other broadleaf weeds when tank-mixed with other herbicides that broaden control spectrum.|
|Zidua 85WDG (pyroxasulfone)||Delayed pre- to early postemergence in wheat only||0.7–2 oz||0.037–0.106||Zidua can be applied in wheat as a delayed preemergence (80% germination with 0.5-inch-long shoot to spiking) to control annual grasses and small-seeded broadleaf weeds. Consult label as soil texture influences rate; may be tank-mixed with Sharpen or glyphosate when applied pre- emergence. See label for additional restrictions. If applied as an early postemergence (spike to 4 tillers) Zidua may be tank-mixed with Clarity, Prowl H2O, metribuzin, or Axial XL; consult label as soil texture influences rate. See label for additional restrictions. Zidua alone will not control emerged weeds. Crop injury may result under prolonged wet soil conditions. Anthem Flex is a premix of pyroxasulfone and carfentrazone (Aim) and can be applied pre to early post for control of certain annual broadleaves and grasses. (Water quality advisory)|
Reference: The Agronomy Guide Table 2.5-5.