Section 1: Pest Management
- Activities involved in an IPM program
- Monitoring the crop for pest damage
- Identifying the cause of crop damage
- Determining the need for management
- Evaluating, selecting, and implementing pest management alternatives
- Assessing the success of a management alternative
- Keeping records
- Weed management
- Weed control
- Weed Species Shifts
- Herbicide Resistance Management
- Insect Management
- Pesticides and their application
- Pesticide formulation
- Formulations for spraying
- Liquid pesticide mixes
- Dry pesticide formulations
- Mixing and application
- Compatibility of pesticides
- Spray nozzle selection and use
- Boom sprayer setup and calibration
- Using pesticides safely
- Pesticide toxicity
- General Guidelines for Pesticide Safety
- Acute toxicity and acute affects
- Signal words
- Chronic toxicity and chronic affects
- Symptoms of pesticide poisoning
- Responding to pesticide poisoning symptoms
- First aid for pesticide poisoning
- General first aid instructions
- Specific first aid instructions
- Safe storage of pesticides
- Safe disposal of pesticides
- Current status of restricted-use pesticides in Pennsylvania
- Worker Protection Standard for agricultural pesticides
- Table 2.1-1. Comparison between activities of an ideal IPM program and a routine spray program.
- Table 2.1-2. Key times for corn insect activity.
- Table 2.1-3. Key times for alfalfa insect activity.
- Table 2.1-4. Key times for soybean insect activity.
- Table 2.1-5. Key small-grain insects.
- Table 2.1-6. Field characteristics that increase the likelihood of certain pests in corn.
- Table 2.1-7. Yield reduction from various weed species in corn and soybeans.
- Table 2.1-8. Some herbicide classes, products, and resistant weeds identified in the United States.
- Table 2.1-9. Important herbicide groups for corn, soybean, small grain, forages, and some vegetable crops.
- Table 2.1-10. Common premix herbicides for agronomic crops in Pennsylvania.
- Figure 2.1-1. Percentage of alfalfa fields with above-threshold weevil infestation in Maryland, 1983 to 1989, and Pennsylvania, 1986 to 1989.
- Figure 2.1-2. Percentage of fields with threshold levels of alfalfa weevil across locations in New York in 1988.
- Figure 2.1-3. Relationship between the economic injury level and the economic threshold with changing economic and biological conditions.
W. S. Curran, professor of weed science, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
D. D. Lingenfelter, assistant extension agronomist, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
J. F. Tooker, assistant professor of entomology, Department of Entomology